♥ Book Title : The Yuezhi
☯ Full Synopsis : "This book provides a detailed narrative history of the dynasty and confederation of the Yuezhi, whose migration from western China to the northern border of present-day Afghanistan resulted ultimately in the creation of the Kushan Empire. Although the Yuezhi have long been recognised as the probable ancestors of the Kushans, they have generally only been considered as a prelude to the principal subject of Kushan history, rather than as a significant and influential people in their own right. The evidence seemed limited and ambiguous, but is actually surprisingly extensive and detailed and certainly sufficient to compile a comprehensive chronological political history of the Yuezhi during the first millennium BCE. The book analyses textual, numismatic and archaeological evidence in an attempt to explain the probable origin of the Yuezhi, their relationship with several Chinese dynasties, their eventual military defeat and expulsion from the Gansu by the Xiongnu, their migration through the Ili Valley, Ferghana and Sogdia to northern Bactria, and their role in the conquest of the former Greco-Bactria state. All of these events were bound up with broader cultural and political developments in ancient Central Asia and show the extraordinary interconnectedness of the Eurasian historical processes. The domino-effect of the migration of the Yuezhi led to significant changes in the broader Eurasian polity."Article| Craig Benjamin| Statement ..."
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♥ Book Title : The Glorious History of Kushana Empire
☯ Full Synopsis : "Gurjars ( also known as Yuezhi by Chinese ) were the Tocharian-speaking inhabitants of the Tarim Basin, making them the easternmost speakers of Indo-European languages in antiquity. They had known a different nomenclature at different places and different time lines. Due to their native places Tokhristan, they called Tocharian or Tokharian (Tushar in Indian – Sanskrit Litreture). This book mainly focused on Kushana Kingdom of Ancient Yuezhi tribe. In the later or previous events, these peoples spreaded in whole central Asia and stablised many Kingdoms like Kushana, Huna, Gurjar Pratihar and Khazar.Till now many researches published on the history of Great yuezhi tribe’s Kushana empire but several links are still under dark. In this book, we are trying to compile all happenings as per their timings. We also would like to clarify that motive of this book is not for money making; our approach is only to attract good schoolers to discuss and research on the great Yuezhi Tribes. Please note that the content of this book primarily consists of articles available from Wikipedia or other free sources online. Table of Contents 1 Kushana tribe: Introduction 2 Origin of Kushana peoples 3 Present form of Yuezhi 4 Yuezhi in India Literaure 5 Starting of Great Migration of Yuezhi 6 Yuezhi’s Further Migration to South West 7 Yuezhi Occupy Bectria 8 Political Structure of Yuezhi States 9 Zhang Qian's Trip to Central Asia 10 Formation of Kushana Empire by Yuezhi peoples 11 Kushans Kings 12 Territorial expansion of Kushana Kingdom 13 Social Structure during Kushana 14 Religions under the Kushans 14.1 Buddhism during Kushana Period 14.2 Fourth Buddhist Council 14.3 Lokakṣema 14.4 Kushana deities 15 Cosmopolitanism of the Kushan Regime 16 Ruins of Kushana Kingdom 16.1 Kushana ruins in North region of Kushana Kingdom 16.2 Kushana Ruins in Afganistan and Pakistan 16.3 Kushana Ruins in Nepal 17 Kushana Art 17.1 Kushana art in Gandhara 17.2 Kushana art in Mathura 17.3 Kushana art in Bectria and Northern Region 18 Kushana Kingdom: Truly linked India ,Central Asia ,China and west 19 Decline of Kushana Kingdom 20 New settlements of Kushans 21 The Impact of Kushan Extinction"Article| Adesh Katariya| Statement ..."
♥ Book Title : Transnationalism in Ancient and Medieval Societies
☯ Full Synopsis : "While scholars have long documented the migration of people in ancient and medieval times, they have paid less attention to those who traveled across borders with some regularity. This study of early transnational relations explores the routine interaction of people across the boundaries of empires, tribal confederacies, kingdoms, and city-states, paying particular attention to the role of long-distance trade along the Silk Road and maritime trade routes. It examines the obstacles voyagers faced, including limited travel and communication capabilities, relatively poor geographical knowledge, and the dangers of a fragmented and shifting political landscape, and offers profiles of better-known transnational elites such as the Hellenic scholar Herodotus and the Venetian merchant Marco Polo, as well lesser known servants, merchants, and sailors. By revealing the important political, economic, and cultural role cross-border trade and travel played in ancient society, this work demonstrates that transnationalism is not unique to modern times. Instructors considering this book for use in a course may request an examination copy here."Article| Michael C. Howard| Statement ..."
♥ Book Title : Ancient History of Central Asia
☯ Full Synopsis : "The Yuezhi were the Tocharian-speaking inhabitants of the Tarim Basin, making them the easternmost speakers of Indo-European languages in antiquity. They had known a different nomenclature at different places and different time lines. Due to their native places Tokhristan, they called Tocharian or Tokharian (Tushar in Indian – Sanskrit Litreture). This book mainly focused on Central Asian History during 200 BC and its effects on later history, Role of Yuezhi migration in Ancient History of Central Asia, settlement of Yuezhi after migration and various theories about current form of Ancient Yuezhi tribe. In the later or previous events , these peoples spreaded in whole central asia and stablised many Kingdoms like Kushana, Huna, Gurjar and Khazar .Till now many researches publoished on the history of Great yuezhi tribe but several links are still under dark. In this book, we are trying to compile all happenings as per their timings. We also would like to clarify that motive of this book is not for money making; our approach is only to attract good schoolers to discuss and research on the great Yuezhi Tribes. Please note that the content of this book primarily consists of articles available from Wikipedia or other free sources online. Table of Contents 1 Yuezhi/Tochar in Past and Gurjar in Present 1.1 Origin 1.2 Migrations Out of India 1.3 Other theories about meaning of word, Gujjar or Gurjar 1.4 Occupation of Yuezhi 1.5 Evidences of Yuezhi/Tochorian Mummies found in Tarim Besin 1.6 Yuezhi(Tocharians)and other Central Asian People in Indian Literature 1.7 Early Relation of Yuezhi with Xiongnu 1.8 Starting of Great Migration of Yuezhi (Tocharian) 1.8.1 First War between Xiongnu and Yuezhi 1.8.2 Second War between Xiongnu and Yuezhi 1.8.3 Third War between Xiongnu and Yuezhi and Yuezhi Migration 1.8.4 Xiao Yuezhi 月氏or Small Yuezhi 2 2.1 Great Yuezhi Migration (Westward Path) 2.1.1 First Yuezhi– Wusun War 2.1.2 First Scythian-Yuezhi War 2.2 Yuezhi’s Further Migration to South West 2.2.1 Second Yuezhi– Wusun War 2.2.1 Yuezhi Occupy Bectria 2.3 Political Structure of Yuezhi States 2.4 Locations of Yuezhi States 2.5 Zhang Qian's Trip to Central Asia 2.5.1 Zhang Qian's reports 2.5.2 Socond Trip of Zhang Qian 2.6 Political Structure Of yuezhi Kingdom in Bectria 2.7 Yuezhi-Perthian War 2.8 Initial phase of Kushana Kingdom- Change in Politics and Art 3 Kushana Empire 3.1 Formation of Kushana Kingdom 3.2 Early Kushans 3.3 Territorial expansion of Kushana Kingdom 3.4 Social Structure during Kushana 3.5 Kushan art 3.6 Religions under the Kushans 3.7 Cosmopolitanism of the Kushan Regime 3.8 Evidence of Kushana Kingdom 3.9 Decline of Kushana Kingdom 3.9.1 New settlements of Kushans 3.9.2 The Impact of Kushan Extinction 4 Huna 4.1 Description 4.2 The Language 4.3 Who were Huna ? 5 White Huna 5.1 The early appearance of the Hepthelites 5.2 Hephtalites History 5.3 Hephtalites Kingdoms 5.4 Huns in Central Asia 5.4.1 First War between Peroz and Hepthelites; 5.4.2 Second War between Peroz and Hepthelites; 5.4.3 Third War between Peroz and Hepthelites; 5.4.4 The Great Persian War, 541-549. 5.4.5 The Hephthalite rullers of Central Asia 5.5 Last Phase of Hepthelites 5.6 Hephthalite Rulers of South Asia 5.6.1 Conquests in Gandhara and northern India 5.6.2 List of Rulers 5.6.3 Important Rulers of the Indo-Huna Empire 5.6.4 The Extermination 6 Kiderites Huna 6.1 Various Theories of Kidarites by Historians 6.2 Connection with Hepthelites 6.3 The Kidarite kingdom 6.4 Kidarites Kings 6.5 Relation to the "Huns" of Europe 6.6 Relation with Khazars 6.7 Kidarites and China 7 Xionites 7.1 Origins 7.2 History 7.3 Conquest of Bactria 7.4 Alchon Hephthalite and Huna people 7.5 Red Huns and White Huns 7.6 Religion 8 Uar 8.1 Origin and migration 8.2 Uar and Hephthalites 9 Northern Huna 9.1 Description 9.2 Iranian Huns 9.2.1 The Huns before Attila 9.2.2 Attila and Bleda's Rise to Power 9.3 History of Northern Huna 9.3.1 Battle of the Catalaunian Plains 9.3.2 Honoria's Proposal 9.3.3 Historical importance 9.3.4 Hunas Invade Italy 9.3.5 Attila's Mysterious Death 9.3.6 Attila's Empire Falls 9.4 The Legacy of Attila the Hun 9.5 Later folklore and iconography 9.6 Appearance and customs 9.7 Language 9.8 Hunnic Descendants in West Asia and Europe 9.9 Relation with Byzantine Empire 10 Khazar 10.1 The Khazars Kingdom 10.2 Origins and prehistory 10.3 Formation of the Khazar state 10.4 History of Khazars 10.4.1 Khazar-Arab war 10.4.2 Khazar religion 10.4.3 Government 10.4.4 Army 10.4.5 Economic position 10.4.6 Khazar coinage 10.5 Extent of influence 10.6 Decline and fall 10.7 Khazars outside Khazaria 10.8 Late references to the Khazars 10.9 Khazar conversion to Judaism 11 Gurjar Pratihar 11.1 Written sources of Gurjar Pratihar Dynasty 11.1.1 Origin Theories 11.1.2 Gurjar Pratihara Branches Relations 11.2 Gurjar Pratihar Rulers 11.3 Expansion of Gurjar Pratihar Kingdom 11.3.1 Conquest of Kannauj and further expansion 11.3.2 Battle of Rajasthan 11.3.3 Gurjar Army 11.4 Decline and downfall of the Pratihara empire 11.5 Later events 11.6 Legacy 11.7 Symbolism of Wild Boar 11.8 Gurjara Pratihara art 12 Chawda Dynasty 12.1 External links 12.2 History 12.3 Relation with Solanki Chalukyas 12.4 Chowtas could be related to Chowda Gurjars of North India 12.5 Solankis came into existence from Chowda rulers 12.6 Chowda rulers of Gujarat were jains similar to Chowta rulers of Karnataka 12.7 Present Status"Article| Adesh Katariya| Statement ..."
♥ Book Title : At Home in Many Worlds
☯ Full Synopsis : "This volume is dedicated to one of the founding figures of Israeli Chinese studies, Professor Irene Eber of The Hebrew University of Jerusalem. It assembles more than two dozen essays by colleagues from all over the world that reflect not only the wide range of her scholarly interests, but above all the fields of research which would not have been established without her and where her contributions will remain. Accordingly, the section "Philosophy in China and Intellectual History" discusses the thorny and complex process of 'organizing the heritage', from the earliest constructed traditions in Han times around the beginning of our era, up to the debates on modernization in present-day China. After an excursion in "Chinese Literature", much space is devoted to "Translating the Bible in China", a topic on which her numerous studies have proved seminal and that deals with Chinese perceptions. As its complement, perceptions of China in systematic and historical perspective are at the core of the section devoted to "Jewish Life and Letters in the World". The contributions share their approach of paying particular attention to the translation processes strictly speaking and to the hermeneutical process of understanding across time and space more generally. A comprehensive list of publications by Irene Eber concludes the volume."Article| Raoul David Findeisen| Statement ..."
♥ Book Title : Eurasian Crossroads
☯ Full Synopsis : "This is the history of Xinjiang, the vast central Eurasian region bordering India, Pakistan, Afghanistan, Tajikistan, Krygyzstan, Kazakhstan, Russia and Mongolia. This book explores the role it has played in the social, cultural and political development of Asia and the world."Article| James A. Millward| Statement ..."
♥ Book Title : The Silk Road: A Very Short Introduction
☯ Full Synopsis : "The phrase "silk road" evokes vivid scenes of merchants leading camel caravans across vast stretches to trade exotic goods in glittering Oriental bazaars, of pilgrims braving bandits and frozen mountain passes to spread their faith across Asia. Looking at the reality behind these images, this Very Short Introduction illuminates the historical background against which the silk road flourished, shedding light on the importance of old-world cultural exchange to Eurasian and world history. On the one hand, historian James A. Millward treats the silk road broadly, to stand in for the cross-cultural communication between peoples across the Eurasian continent since at least the Neolithic era. On the other, he highlights specific examples of goods and ideas exchanged between the Mediterranean, Persia, India, and China, along with the significance of these exchanges. While including silks, spices, and travelers' tales of colorful locales, the book explains the dynamics of Central Eurasian history that promoted Silk Road interactions--especially the role of nomad empires--highlighting the importance of the biological, technological, artistic, intellectual, and religious interchanges across the continent. Millward shows that these exchanges had a profound effect on the old world that was akin to, if not on the scale of, modern globalization. He also disputes the idea that the silk road declined after the collapse of the Mongol empire or the opening of direct sea routes from Europe to Asia, showing how silk road phenomena continued through the early modern and modern expansion of the Russian and Chinese states across Central Asia. Millward concludes that the idea of the silk road has remained powerful, not only as a popular name for boutiques and restaurants, but also in modern politics and diplomacy, such as U.S. Secretary of State Hilary Clinton's "Silk Road Initiative" for India, Pakistan, and Afghanistan."Article| James A. Millward| Statement ..."
♥ Book Title : Premodern Trade in World History
☯ Full Synopsis : "Trade and commerce are among the oldest, most pervasive, and most important of human activities, serving as engines for change in many other human endeavors. This far-reaching study examines the key theme of trading in world history, from the earliest signs of trade until the long-distance trade systems such as the famous Silk Road were firmly established. Beginning with a general background on the mechanism of trade, Richard L. Smith addresses such basic issues as how and why people trade, and what purpose trade serves. The book then traces the development of long-distance trade, from its beginnings in the Paleolithic and Neolithic periods through early river valley civilizations and the rise of great empires, to the evolution of vast trade systems that tied different zones together. Topics covered include: • products that were traded and why; • the relationship between political authorities and trade; • the rise and fall of Bronze Age commerce; • the development of a maritime system centered on the Indian Ocean stretching from the Mediterranean to the South China Sea; • the integration of China into the world system and the creation of the Silk Road; • the transition to a modern commercial system. Complete with maps for clear visual illustration, this vital contribution to the study of World History brings the story of trade in the premodern period vividly to life."Article| Richard L. Smith| Statement ..."
♥ Book Title : Sources on the Alans
☯ Full Synopsis : ""Sources on the Alans" now for the first time gives an exhaustive overview of all reports on the Alans written in Greek, Latin, Medieval Latin, Byzantine, Arabic, Armenian, Catalan, Georgian, Hebrew, Iranian, Mongol, Russian, Syriac and Chinese languages. From ancient up to medieval times. With an extensive Onomasticon, time tables and indices on authors and passages. A reference work in the truest sense."Article| Agustí Alemany| Statement ..."
♥ Book Title : Concise Encyclopeida Of World History
☯ Full Synopsis : "The Concise Encyclopedia Of World History Offers The Global Reading Public, Students, And Professors A Handy, Complete, And Accurate Guide To All Political Formations Since The Beginning Of History. It Reaches Into Pre-History Through The Inclusion Of The Important Families Of Languages Spoken Today. It Also Tracks Ethnic Groups, Especially Nomadic, Which Have Been Influential In The Creation Of Civilizations And States. The Entries On Existing Independent States Include Up-To-Date Political Facts And Statistics. They Mention Each Country S World Heritage Sites. To Complement The Individual Entries In This Encyclopedia, There Is An Extensive, Commentated World-Historical Chronology. A Special Feature In This Work Is The Inclusion Of Individual Political Chronologies For Ancient Civilizations And Important Countries And Regions The World Over. To Round Out This Easy-To-Consult And Thoroughly Researched Work, There Is A Cross-Referenced Index Especially Designed For Provinces, Cities, And Other Entities Which Have No Entries Of Their Own But Appear In The Entries, Sometimes Prominently, As, For Example, Abu Dhabi In The United Arab Emirates Or Amritsar In India."Article| Carlos Ramirez-Faria| Statement ..."
♥ Book Title : Communication in China
☯ Full Synopsis : "This authoritative study explores China's rapidly evolving polity, economy, and society through the prism of its communication system. Yuezhi Zhao offers a multifaceted, interdisciplinary analysis of communication in China and its central role in the struggle for control during the country's rise to global power. The industry in all its forms—ranging from the news media to entertainment outlets to the Internet—has been a critical battleground among different social forces in this period of wrenching change. The author explores alterations in the structure and content of Chinese communication in light of the rapid evolution of state-society relations to reveal the profoundly contradictory, conflicted, and uncertain nature of China's ongoing transformation."Article| Yuezhi Zhao| Statement ..."
♥ Book Title : The Year One
☯ Full Synopsis : ""After an introduction on the interconnections of the ancient world, four sections cover the world geographically: the Mediterranean and Roman Empire, West and Central Asia, Asia, and the Americas. Each section begins with a map and follows with color plates of 150 works, each accompanied by explanatory text. Celts excelled in intricate metalwork; Egyptians melded Greco-Roman and Egyptian styles; peoples east of the Mediterranean produced a wide range of sculpture, ceramics, and precious metal objects; and in what is now Afghanistan, Pakistan, and northern India, Buddhist art was incorporated with Greco-Roman influences. In East Asia, China's empire under the Han Dynasty created artifacts in every medium, and seminomads in northern China fabricated metalwork often to adorn horses. In cultures of the Pacific in South and Mesoamerica, objects were made from stone, ceramic, and gold."--Krisostomus."Article| Metropolitan Museum of Art (New York, N.Y.)| Statement ..."