♥ Book Title : Semantics of Natural Language
☯ Full Synopsis : ""Article| D. Davidson| Statement ..."
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♥ Book Title : Abstract Objects and the Semantics of Natural Language
☯ Full Synopsis : "Abstract objects have been a topic of philosophical debate since antiquity. Philosophers have defended various views about abstract objects by appealing to metaphysical considerations, considerations regarding mathematics or science, and, not infrequently, intuitions about natural language. Friederike Moltmann takes a fresh approach and focuses on natural language to pursue the question of how and whether it allows for reference to abstract objects of varioussorts. She makes systematic use of contemporary linguistic semantics and explores a greater range of data and linguistic generalizations than has previously been brought to bear on philosophical discussions of the abstract. The resulting ontological picture is very different from that generally taken forgranted by philosophers, and even semanticists. Reference to abstract objects such as properties, numbers, propositions, degrees, and expression types is considerably more marginal than generally held. Instead, natural language is rather generous in allowing reference to particularized properties (tropes) and the use of expressions that despite their appearance do not actually act as referential expressions. Reference to truly abstract objects is largely restricted to noun phrases displaying aparticular complex linguistic structure that goes along with particular strategies of reification, such as the number eight. One type of expression that plays a central role in Moltmann's argument is quantifiers such as something, which can take the place of various non-referential expressions andplay a central role in various philosophical discussions. She defends an analysis of such quantifiers as nominalizing quantifiers, involving the same object-introducing strategies as corresponding nominalizations."Article| Friederike Moltmann| Statement ..."
♥ Book Title : Natural Language Semantics
☯ Full Synopsis : "Natural Language Semantics discusses fundamental concepts for linguistic semantics. This book combines theoretical explanations of several methods of inquiry with detailed semantic analysis and emphasises the philosophy that semantics is about meaning in human languages and that linguistic meaning is cognitively and functionally motivated."Article| Keith Allan| Statement ..."
♥ Book Title : Semantics
☯ Full Synopsis : ""Article| Claudia Maienborn| Statement ..."
♥ Book Title : Bayesian Natural Language Semantics and Pragmatics
☯ Full Synopsis : "The contributions in this volume focus on the Bayesian interpretation of natural languages, which is widely used in areas of artificial intelligence, cognitive science, and computational linguistics. This is the first volume to take up topics in Bayesian Natural Language Interpretation and make proposals based on information theory, probability theory, and related fields. The methodologies offered here extend to the target semantic and pragmatic analyses of computational natural language interpretation. Bayesian approaches to natural language semantics and pragmatics are based on methods from signal processing and the causal Bayesian models pioneered by especially Pearl. In signal processing, the Bayesian method finds the most probable interpretation by finding the one that maximizes the product of the prior probability and the likelihood of the interpretation. It thus stresses the importance of a production model for interpretation as in Grice’s contributions to pragmatics or in interpretation by abduction."Article| Henk Zeevat| Statement ..."
♥ Book Title : The Semantics of Prepositions
☯ Full Synopsis : ""Article| Cornelia Zelinsky-Wibbelt| Statement ..."
♥ Book Title : The Science of Meaning
☯ Full Synopsis : "By creating certain marks on paper, or by making certain sounds-breathing past a moving tongue-or by articulation of hands and bodies, language users can give expression to their mental lives. With language we command, assert, query, emote, insult, and inspire. Language has meaning. This fact can be quite mystifying, yet a science of linguistic meaning-semantics-has emerged at the intersection of a variety of disciplines: philosophy, linguistics, computer science, and psychology. Semantics is the study of meaning. But what exactly is "meaning"? What is the exact target of semantic theory? Much of the early work in natural language semantics was accompanied by extensive reflection on the aims of semantic theory, and the form a theory must take to meet those aims. But this meta-theoretical reflection has not kept pace with recent theoretical innovations. This volume re-addresses these questions concerning the foundations of natural language semantics in light of the current state-of-the-art in semantic theorising."Article| Derek Ball| Statement ..."
♥ Book Title : Knowledge Representation and the Semantics of Natural Language
☯ Full Synopsis : "The book presents an interdisciplinary approach to knowledge representation and the treatment of semantic phenomena of natural language, which is positioned between artificial intelligence, computational linguistics, and cognitive psychology. The proposed method is based on Multilayered Extended Semantic Networks (MultiNets), which can be used for theoretical investigations into the semantics of natural language, for cognitive modeling, for describing lexical entries in a computational lexicon, and for natural language processing (NLP). Part I deals with fundamental problems of semantic knowledge representation and semantic interpretation of natural language phenomena. Part II provides a systematic description of the representational means of MultiNet, one of the most comprehensive and thoroughly specified collections of relations and functions used in real NLP applications. MultiNet is embedded into a system of software tools comprising a workbench for the knowledge engineer, a semantic interpreter translating natural language expressions into formal meaning structures, and a workbench for the computer lexicographer. The book has been used for courses in artificial intelligence at several universities and is one of the cornerstones for teaching computational linguistics in a virtual electronic laboratory."Article| Hermann Helbig| Statement ..."
♥ Book Title : Semantics, Tense, and Time
☯ Full Synopsis : "According to Peter Ludlow, there is a very close relation between the structure of natural language and that of reality, and one can gain insights into long-standing metaphysical questions by studying the semantics of natural language. In this book Ludlow uses the metaphysics of time as a case study and focuses on the dispute between A-theorists and B-theorists about the nature of time. According to B-theorists, there is no genuine change, but a permanent sequence of events ordered by an earlier-than/later-than relation. According to the version of the A-theory adopted by Ludlow (a position sometimes called "presentism"), there are no past or future events or times; what makes something past or future is how the world stands right now. Ludlow argues that each metaphysical picture is tied to a particular semantical theory of tense and that the dispute can be adjudicated on semantical grounds. A presentism-compatible semantics, he claims, is superior to a B-theory semantics in a number of respects, including its abilities to handle the indexical nature of temporal discourse and to account for facts about language acquisition. Along the way, Ludlow develops a conception of "E-type" temporal anaphora that can account for both temporal anaphora and complex tenses without reference to past and future events. His view has philosophical consequences for theories of logic, self-knowledge, and memory. As for linguistic consequences, Ludlow suggests that the very idea of grammatical tense may have to be dispensed with and replaced with some combination of aspect, modality, and evidentiality."Article| Peter Ludlow| Statement ..."
♥ Book Title : The Semantic Representation of Natural Language
☯ Full Synopsis : "Proposes robust onomasiological semantic formalism and applies it to a wide variety of linguistic phenomena."Article| Michael Levison| Statement ..."
♥ Book Title : Boolean Semantics for Natural Language
☯ Full Synopsis : "In the spring of 1978, one of the authors of this book was sitting in on a course in logic for linguists given by the other author. In attempting to present some of Montague's insights in an elementary way (hopefully avoid ing the notation which many find difficult at first), the authors began dis cussions aimed towards the construction of a simple model-theoretical semantic apparatus which could be applied directly to a small English-like language and used to illustrate the methods of formal logical interpretation. In these discussions two points impressed themselves on us. First, our task could be simplified by using boolean algebras and boolean homomorphisms in the models; and second, the boolean approach we were developing had much more widespread relevance to the logical structure of English than we first thought. During the summer and fall of 1978 we continued work on the system, proving the more fundamental theorems (including what we have come to call the Justification Theorem) and outlining the way in which an intensional interpretation scheme could be developed which made use of the boolean approach (which was originally strictly extensional). We presented our findings in a monograph (Keenan and Faltz, 1978) which the UCLA Linguistics Department kindly published as part of their series called Occa sional Papers in Linguistics; one of the authors also presented the system at a colloquium held at the Winter Meeting of the Linguistic Society of America in December 1978."Article| Edward L. Keenan| Statement ..."
♥ Book Title : Introduction to Natural Language Semantics
☯ Full Synopsis : "This introduction examines the semantics of natural languages."Article| Henriëtte de Swart| Statement ..."