♥ Book Title : Semantics: Foundational issues
☯ Full Synopsis : ""Article| Javier Gutiérrez-Rexach| Statement ..."
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♥ Book Title : Foundational Issues in Artificial Intelligence and Cognitive Science
☯ Full Synopsis : "The book focuses on a conceptual flaw in contemporary artificial intelligence and cognitive science. Many people have discovered diverse manifestations and facets of this flaw, but the central conceptual impasse is at best only partially perceived. Its consequences, nevertheless, visit themselves as distortions and failures of multiple research projects - and make impossible the ultimate aspirations of the fields. The impasse concerns a presupposition concerning the nature of representation - that all representation has the nature of encodings: encodingism. Encodings certainly exist, but encodingism is at root logically incoherent; any programmatic research predicted on it is doomed too distortion and ultimate failure. The impasse and its consequences - and steps away from that impasse - are explored in a large number of projects and approaches. These include SOAR, CYC, PDP, situated cognition, subsumption architecture robotics, and the frame problems - a general survey of the current research in AI and Cognitive Science emerges. Interactivism, an alternative model of representation, is proposed and examined."Article| Mark H. Bickhard| Statement ..."
♥ Book Title : Foundational Issues in Linguistic Theory
☯ Full Synopsis : "Essays by leading theoretical linguists--including Noam Chomsky, B. Elan Dresher, Richard Kayne, Howard Lasnik, Morris Halle, Norbert Hornstein, Henk van Riemsdijk, and Edwin Williams--reflect on Jean-Roger Vergnaud's influence in the field and discuss current theoretical issues Jean-Roger Vergnaud's work on the foundational issues in linguistics has proved influential over the past three decades. At MIT in 1974, Vergnaud (now holder of the Andrew W. Mellon Professorship in Humanities at the University of Southern California) made a proposal in his Ph.D. thesis that has since become, in somewhat modified form, the standard analysis for the derivation of relative clauses. Vergnaud later integrated the proposal within a broader theory of movement and abstract case. These topics have remained central to theoretical linguistics. In this volume, essays by leading theoretical linguists attest to the importance of Jean-Roger Vergnaud's contributions to linguistics. The essays first discuss issues in syntax, documenting important breakthroughs in the development of the principles and parameters framework and including a famous letter (unpublished until recently) from Vergnaud to Noam Chomsky and Howard Lasnik commenting on the first draft of their 1977 paper "Filters and Controls." Vergnaud's writings on phonology (which, the editors write, "take a definite syntactic turn") have also been influential, and the volume concludes with two contributions to that field. The essays, rewarding from both theoretical and empirical perspectives, not only offer insight into Vergnaud's impact on the field but also describe current work on the issues he introduced into the scholarly debate. Contributors Joseph Aoun, Elabbas Benmamoun, Cedric Boeckx, Noam Chomsky, B. Elan Dresher, Robert Freidin, Morris Halle, Norbert Hornstein, Richard S. Kayne, Samuel Jay Keyser, Howard Lasnik, Yen-hui Audrey Li, M. Rita Manzini, Karine Megerdoomian, David Michaels, Henk van Riemsdijk, Alain Rouveret, Leonardo M. Savoia, Jean-Roger Vergnaud, Edwin Williams"Article| Jean-Roger Vergnaud| Statement ..."
♥ Book Title : Computational Lexical Semantics
☯ Full Synopsis : "Lexical semantics has become a major research area within computational linguistics, drawing from psycholinguistics, knowledge representation, and computer algorithms and architecture. Research programs whose goal is the definition of large lexicons are asking what the appropriate representation structure is for different facets of lexical information. Among these facets, semantic information is probably the most complex and the least explored. Computational Lexical Semantics is one of the first volumes to provide models for the creation of various kinds of computerized lexicons for the automatic treatment of natural language, with applications to machine translation, automatic indexing, and database front-ends, knowledge extraction, among other things. It focuses on semantic issues, as seen by linguists, psychologists, and computer scientists. Besides describing academic research, it also covers ongoing industrial projects."Article| Patrick Saint-Dizier| Statement ..."
♥ Book Title : The Structure of Biological Theories
☯ Full Synopsis : "The central thesis of this book is that the semantic conception is a logical methodologically and heuristically richer and more accurate account of scientific theorizing, and in particular of theorizing in evolutionary biology, than the more widely adhered to syntactic conception. In this book, the author outlines both the conceptions indicating the significant problems with the syntactic conception; explains and criticizes two influential syntactic-conception accounts of the structure of evolutionary theorizing. Thompson also argues that the semantic conception provides a richer and more accurate understanding than the syntactic conception of sociobiological explanation, of the testability of sociobiology, and of the role of culture and cognition in evolutionary explanations of human behavior."Article| Paul Thompson| Statement ..."
♥ Book Title : The Routledge Handbook of Semantics
☯ Full Synopsis : "The Routledge Handbook of Semantics provides a broad and state-of-the-art survey of this field, covering semantic research at both word and sentence level. It presents a synoptic view of the most important areas of semantic investigation, including contemporary methodologies and debates, and indicating possible future directions in the field. Written by experts from around the world, the 29 chapters cover key issues and approaches within the following areas: meaning and conceptualisation; meaning and context; lexical semantics; semantics of specific phenomena; development, change and variation. The Routledge Handbook of Semantics is essential reading for researchers and postgraduate students working in this area."Article| Nick Riemer| Statement ..."
♥ Book Title : Semantics
☯ Full Synopsis : "This handbook comprises, in three volumes, an in-depth presentation of the state of the art in linguistic semantics from a wide variety of perspectives. It contains 112 articles written by leading scholars from around the world. These articles present detailed, yet accessible, introductions to key issues, including the analysis of specific semantic categories and constructions, the history of semantic research, theories and theoretical frameworks, methodology, and relationships with related fields; moreover, they give expert guidance on topics of debate within the field, on the strengths and weaknesses of existing theories, and on the likely directions for the future development of semantic research. In many cases, the articles written for this handbook promise to become the standard references on the topics they cover. This work will provide an essential reference for both advanced students and researchers in semantics and related fields within linguistics, psychology, philosophy, and other areas."Article| Claudia Maienborn| Statement ..."
♥ Book Title : Flexibility Principles in Boolean Semantics
☯ Full Synopsis : "An investigation of the logical flexibility principles needed for a formal semantic account of coordination, plurality, and scope in natural language. Since the early work of Montague, Boolean semantics and its subfield of generalized quantifier theory have become the model-theoretic foundation for the study of meaning in natural languages. This book uses this framework to develop a new semantic theory of central linguistic phenomena involving coordination, plurality, and scope. The proposed theory makes use of the standard Boolean interpretation of conjunction, a choice-function account of indefinites, and a novel semantics of plurals that is not based on the distributive/collective distinction. The key to unifying these mechanisms is a version of Montagovian semantics that is augmented by flexibility principles: semantic operations that have no counterpart in phonology. This is the first book to cover these areas in a way that is both linguistically comprehensive and formally explicit. On one hand, it addresses questions of primarily linguistic concern: the semantic functions of words like and and or in different languages, the interpretation of indefinites and their scope, and the semantic typology of noun phrases and predicates. On the other hand, it addresses formal questions that are motivated by the treatment of these linguistic problems: the use of Boolean algebras in linguistics, the proper formalization of choice functions within generalized quantifier theory, and the extension of this theory to the domain of plurality. While primarily intended for readers with a background in theoretical linguistics, the book will also be of interest to researchers and advanced students in logic, computational linguistics, philosophy of language, and artificial intelligence."Article| Yoad Winter| Statement ..."
♥ Book Title : Foundations of Intensional Semantics
☯ Full Synopsis : "This book provides a systematic study of three foundational issues in the semantics of natural language that have been relatively neglected in the past few decades. focuses on the formal characterization of intensions, the nature of an adequate type system for natural language semantics, and the formal power of the semantic representation language proposes a theory that offers a promising framework for developing a computational semantic system sufficiently expressive to capture the properties of natural language meaning while remaining computationally tractable written by two leading researchers and of interest to students and researchers in formal semantics, computational linguistics, logic, artificial intelligence, and the philosophy of language"Article| Chris Fox| Statement ..."
♥ Book Title : Foundational Issues in Natural Language Processing
☯ Full Synopsis : "William Rounds, Avarind Joshi, Janet Fodor, and Robert Berwick are leading scholars in the multidisciplinary field of natural language processing. In four separate essays they address the complex and difficult connections among grammatical theory, mathematical linguistics, and the operation of real natural-language-processing systems, both human and electronic. The editors' substantial introduction details the progress and problems involved in attempts to relate these four areas of research.William Rounds discusses the relevance of complexity results to linguistics and computational linguistics, providing useful caveats about how results might be misinterpreted and pointing out promising avenues of future research. Avarind Joshi (with K. Vijay-Shanker and David Weir) surveys results showing the equivalence of several different grammatical formalisms, all of which are mildly context-sensitive, with special attention to variants of tree adjoining grammar.Janet Fodor discusses how psycholinguistic results can bear on the choice among competing grammatical theories, surveying a number of recent experiments and their relevance to issues in grammatical theory. Robert Berwick considers the relationship between issues in linguistic theory and the construction of computational parsing systems, in particular the question of what it means to implement a theory of grammar in a computational system. He argues for the advantages of a principle-based approach over a rulebased one, and surveys several recent parsing systems based on the theory of government and binding.Peter Sells is Assistant Professor of Linguistics at Stanford University. Stuart M. Shieber is Assistant Professor of Computer Science on the Gordon McKay Endowment at Harvard University. Thomas Wasow is Professor of Linguistics and Philosophy at Stanford University."Article| Peter Sells| Statement ..."
♥ Book Title : Properties, Types and Meaning
☯ Full Synopsis : "This collection focuses on two interrelated problems which are central to the analysis of meaning: intentionality and the nature of semantic categories. Most of the problems that semantics currently faces call for a characterization of information bearing structures richer than one cast in terms of possible worlds, and for a system of semantic categories more dynamic and flexible than the one stemming from standard type-theory. -- Back cover."Article| G. Chierchia| Statement ..."
♥ Book Title : An Invitation to Cognitive Science: Language
☯ Full Synopsis : "Rather than surveying theories and data in the manner characteristic of many introductory textbooks in the field, An Invitation to Cognitive Science employs a unique case study approach, presenting a focused research topic in some depth and relying on suggested readings to convey the breadth of views and results."Article| Lila R. Gleitman| Statement ..."