♥ Book Title : Investigation into High Efficiency Visible Light Photocatalysts for Water Reduction and Oxidation
☯ Full Synopsis : "This thesis describes novel strategies for the rational design of several cutting-edge high-efficiency photocatalysts, for applications such as water photooxidation, reduction, and overall splitting using a Z-Scheme system. As such, it focuses on efficient strategies for reducing energy loss by controlling charge transfer and separation, including novel faceted forms of silver phosphate for water photooxidation at record high rates, surface-basic highly polymerised graphitic carbon nitride for extremely efficient hydrogen production, and the first example of overall water splitting using a graphitic carbon nitride-based Z-Scheme system. Photocatalytic water splitting using solar irradiation can potentially offer a zero-carbon renewable energy source, yielding hydrogen and oxygen as clean products. These two ‘solar’ products can be used directly in fuel cells or combustion to provide clean electricity or other energy. Alternatively they can be utilised as separate entities for feedstock-based reactions, and are considered to be the two cornerstones of hydrogenation and oxidation reactions, including the production of methanol as a safe/portable fuel, or conventional catalytic reactions such as Fischer-Tropsch synthesis and ethylene oxide production. The main driving force behind the investigation is the fact that no photocatalyst system has yet reported combined high efficiency, high stability, and cost effectiveness; though cheap and stable, most suffer from low efficiency."Article| David James Martin| Statement ..."
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♥ Book Title : Nanotechnology in Catalysis, 3 Volumes
☯ Full Synopsis : "Reflecting the R&D efforts in the field that have resulted in a plethora of novel applications over the past decade, this handbook gives a comprehensive overview of the tangible benefits of nanotechnology in catalysis. By bridging fundamental research and industrial development, it provides a unique perspective on this scientifically and economically important field. While the first three parts are devoted to preparation and characterization of nanocatalysts, the final three provide in-depth insights into their applications in the fine chemicals industry, the energy industry, and for environmental protection, with expert authors reporting on real-life applications that are on the brink of commercialization. Timely reading for catalytic chemists, materials scientists, chemists in industry, and process engineers."Article| Bert Sels| Statement ..."
♥ Book Title : Comprehensive Nanoscience and Technology
☯ Full Synopsis : "From the Introduction: Nanotechnology and its underpinning sciences are progressing with unprecedented rapidity. With technical advances in a variety of nanoscale fabrication and manipulation technologies, the whole topical area is maturing into a vibrant field that is generating new scientific research and a burgeoning range of commercial applications, with an annual market already at the trillion dollar threshold. The means of fabricating and controlling matter on the nanoscale afford striking and unprecedented opportunities to exploit a variety of exotic phenomena such as quantum, nanophotonic and nanoelectromechanical effects. Moreover, researchers are elucidating new perspectives on the electronic and optical properties of matter because of the way that nanoscale materials bridge the disparate theories describing molecules and bulk matter. Surface phenomena also gain a greatly increased significance; even the well-known link between chemical reactivity and surface-to-volume ratio becomes a major determinant of physical properties, when it operates over nanoscale dimensions. Against this background, this comprehensive work is designed to address the need for a dynamic, authoritative and readily accessible source of information, capturing the full breadth of the subject. Its six volumes, covering a broad spectrum of disciplines including material sciences, chemistry, physics and life sciences, have been written and edited by an outstanding team of international experts. Addressing an extensive, cross-disciplinary audience, each chapter aims to cover key developments in a scholarly, readable and critical style, providing an indispensible first point of entry to the literature for scientists and technologists from interdisciplinary fields. The work focuses on the major classes of nanomaterials in terms of their synthesis, structure and applications, reviewing nanomaterials and their respective technologies in well-structured and comprehensive articles with extensive cross-references. It has been a constant surprise and delight to have found, amongst the rapidly escalating number who work in nanoscience and technology, so many highly esteemed authors willing to contribute. Sharing our anticipation of a major addition to the literature, they have also captured the excitement of the field itself in each carefully crafted chapter. Along with our painstaking and meticulous volume editors, full credit for the success of this enterprise must go to these individuals, together with our thanks for (largely) adhering to the given deadlines. Lastly, we record our sincere thanks and appreciation for the skills and professionalism of the numerous Elsevier staff who have been involved in this project, notably Fiona Geraghty, Megan Palmer and Greg Harris, and especially Donna De Weerd-Wilson who has steered it through from its inception. We have greatly enjoyed working with them all, as we have with each other."Article| no defined| Statement ..."
♥ Book Title : Advanced Oxidation Processes for Water Treatment
☯ Full Synopsis : "Advanced Oxidation Processes (AOPs) rely on the efficient generation of reactive radical species and are increasingly attractive options for water remediation from a wide variety of organic micropollutants of human health and/or environmental concern. Advanced Oxidation Processes for Water Treatment covers the key advanced oxidation processes developed for chemical contaminant destruction in polluted water sources, some of which have been implemented successfully at water treatment plants around the world. The book is structured in two sections; the first part is dedicated to the most relevant AOPs, whereas the topics covered in the second section include the photochemistry of chemical contaminants in the aquatic environment, advanced water treatment for water reuse, implementation of advanced treatment processes for drinking water production at a state-of-the art water treatment plant in Europe, advanced treatment of municipal and industrial wastewater, and green technologies for water remediation. The advanced oxidation processes discussed in the book cover the following aspects: - Process principles including the most recent scientific findings and interpretation. - Classes of compounds suitable to AOP treatment and examples of reaction mechanisms. - Chemical and photochemical degradation kinetics and modelling. - Water quality impact on process performance and practical considerations on process parameter selection criteria. - Process limitations and byproduct formation and strategies to mitigate any potential adverse effects on the treated water quality. - AOP equipment design and economics considerations. - Research studies and outcomes. - Case studies relevant to process implementation to water treatment. - Commercial applications. - Future research needs. Advanced Oxidation Processes for Water Treatment presents the most recent scientific and technological achievements in process understanding and implementation, and addresses to anyone interested in water remediation, including water industry professionals, consulting engineers, regulators, academics, students. Editor: Mihaela I. Stefan - Trojan Technologies - Canada"Article| Mihaela I. Stefan| Statement ..."
♥ Book Title : Visible-Light Photocatalysis of Carbon-Based Materials
☯ Full Synopsis : "Carbon-based photocatalysis has been considered as an economic, safe, renewable, and clean technology, for various applications. However, the pristine carbon material is usually restricted by unsatisfactory photocatalytic efficiency and practical applications due to the insufficient solar light absorption, the low-surface area, and the fast recombination of photogenerated electron-hole pairs. Various modification strategies, such as elemental and molecular doping, preparation of mesoporous carbon materials, and combination of conductive materials, are adopted to enhance the photocatalytic activity of carbon materials. In this book, we intend to describe the great potential of efficient and low-cost carbon-based materials in various realms, such as photodegradation of organic compounds, water splitting, and selective organic transformations."Article| Yunjin Yao| Statement ..."
♥ Book Title : Advances in Chemical Engineering
☯ Full Synopsis : "The cross-fertilization of physico-chemical and mathematical ideas has a long historical tradition. This volume of Advances in Chemical Engineering is almost completely dedicated to a conference on “Mathematics in Chemical Kinetics and Engineering (MaCKiE-2007), which was held in Houston in February 2007, bringing together about 40 mathematicians, chemists, and chemical engineers from 10 countries to discuss the application and development of mathematical tools in their respective fields. * Updates and informs the reader on the latest research findings using original reviews * Written by leading industry experts and scholars * Reviews and analyzes developments in the field"Article| no defined| Statement ..."
♥ Book Title : PHOTOCATALYTIC WATER SPLITTING
☯ Full Synopsis : "Due to the expected increases on energy demand in the near future, the development of new catalytic molecular compositions and materials capable of directly converting water, with the aid of solar photons, into hydrogen becomes obviated. Hydrogen is a combustible fuel and precious high-energy feedstock chemical. However, for the water-splitting reaction to proceed efficiently and economically enough for large-scale application, efficient light-absorbing sensitizers and water splitting catalysts are required. To study the kinetics of the water reduction reaction, we have used titania (TiO2) nanoparticles as a robust scaffold to photochemically grow platinum (Pt) nanoparticles from a unique surface-anchored molecular precursor Pt(dcbpy)Cl2 [dcbpy = 4,4`-dicarboxylic acid-2,2`-bipyridine]. The hybrid Pt/TiO2 nanomaterials obtained were shown to be a superior water reduction catalyst (WRC) in aqueous suspensions when compared with the benchmark platinized TiO2. In addition, cobalt phosphate (CoPi) water oxidation catalyst (WOC) was photochemically assembled on the surface of TiO2, and its structure and mechanism of activity showed resemblance to the established electrochemically grown CoPi material. Both WRC and WOC described above possessed near unity Faradaic efficiency for hydrogen and oxygen production respectively, and were fully characterized by electron microscopy, x-ray absorption spectroscopy, electrochemistry and photochemistry. While there are established materials and molecules that are able to drive water splitting catalysis, some of these efficient semiconductors, including titanium dioxide (TiO2) and tungsten trioxide (WO3), are only able to absorb high-energy (ultraviolet or blue) photons. This high-energy light represents merely a fraction of the solar spectrum that strikes the earth and the energy content of those remaining photons is simply wasted. A strategy to mitigate this problem has been developed over the years in our laboratory. Briefly, photons of low energy are converted into higher energy light using a process termed photon upconversion. Using this technique, low energy photons supplied by the sun can be converted into light of appropriate energy to trigger electronic transitions in high energy absorbing photoactive materials without any chemical modification of the latter. We have shown, that this technology is capable of upconverting visible sunlight to sensitize wide-bandgap semiconductors such as WO3, subsequently extending the photoaction of these materials to cover a larger portion of the solar spectrum. Besides the engineering of different compositions that serve as either sensitizers or catalysts in these solar energy conversion schemes, we have designed an apparatus for parallel high-throughput screening of these photocatalytic compositions. This combinatorial approach to solar fuels photocatalysis has already led to unprecedented fundamental understanding of the generation of hydrogen gas from pure water. The activity of a series of new Ru(II) sensitizers along with Co(II) molecular WRCs were optimized under visible light excitation utilizing different experimental conditions. The multi-step mechanism of activity of selected compositions was further elucidated by pump-probe transient absorption spectroscopy."Article| Rony S. Khnayzer| Statement ..."
♥ Book Title : Photochemistry
☯ Full Synopsis : "Annotation 'Photochemistry' reviews photo-induced processes that have relevance to the wide-ranging academic and commercial disciplines, and interests in chemistry, physics, biology and technology."Article| Angelo Albini| Statement ..."
♥ Book Title : Structure-based Drug Discovery
☯ Full Synopsis : "This book describes some of the most exciting developments for the discovery of new drugs, such as Fragment-based methods. It contains the latest developments in technologies that can be used to obtain the 3-D structures. This book includes experimental approaches using X-ray crystallography and NMR for Fragment-based screening as well as other biophysical methods for studying protein/ligand interactions."Article| Harren Jhoti| Statement ..."
♥ Book Title : Semiconductor Photocatalysis
☯ Full Synopsis : "Photocatalysis is a hot topic because it is an environmentally friendly approach toward the conversion of light energy into chemical energy at mild reaction environments. Also, it is well applied in several major areas such as water splitting, bacterial inactivation, and pollutants elimination, which is a possible solution to energy shortage and environmental issues. The fundamental knowledge and the frontier research progress in typical photocatalytic materials, such as TiO2-based and non-TiO2-based photocatalysts, are included in this book. Methods to improve the photocatalytic efficiency and to provide a hint for the rational design of the new photocatalysts are covered."Article| Wenbin Cao| Statement ..."
♥ Book Title : Band Structure of Semiconductors
☯ Full Synopsis : "Band Structure of Semiconductors provides a review of the theoretical and experimental methods of investigating band structure and an analysis of the results of the developments in this field. The book presents the problems, methods, and applications in the study of band structure. Topics on the computational methods of band structure; band structures of important semiconducting materials; behavior of an electron in a perturbed periodic field; effective masses and g-factors for the most commonly encountered band structures; and the treatment of cyclotron resonance, Shubnikov-de Haas oscillations, magnetophonon resonance, and magneto-optical phenomena are discussed. Experimental physicists, theoretical physicists, students and research workers, and engineers working in the field of semiconductor electronics will find this book a great source of vital information."Article| I. M. Tsidilkovski| Statement ..."
♥ Book Title : Photocatalytic Semiconductors
☯ Full Synopsis : "This critical volume examines the different methods used for the synthesis of a great number of photocatalysts, including TiO2, ZnO and other modified semiconductors, as well as characterization techniques used for determining the optical, structural and morphological properties of the semiconducting materials. Additionally, the authors discuss photoelectrochemical methods for determining the light activity of the photocatalytic semiconductors by means of measurement of properties such as band gap energy, flat band potential and kinetics of hole and electron transfer. Photocatalytic Semiconductors: Synthesis, Characterization and Environmental Applications provide an overview of the semiconductor materials from first- to third-generation photocatalysts and their applications in wastewater treatment and water disinfection. The book further presents economic and toxicological aspects in the production and application of photocatalytic materials."Article| Aracely Hernández-Ramírez| Statement ..."