♥ Book Title : Ice Drift
☯ Full Synopsis : "The year is 1868, and fourteen-year-old Alika and his younger brother, Sulu, are hunting for seals on an ice floe attached to their island in the Arctic. Suddenly the ice starts to shake, and they hear a loud crack--the terrible sound of the floe breaking free from land. The boys watch with horror as the dark expanse of water between the ice and the shore rapidly widens, and they start drifting south--away from their home, their family, and everything they've ever known. Throughout their six-month-long journey down the Greenland Strait, the brothers face bitter cold, starvation, and most frightening of all, vicious polar bears. But they still remain hopeful that one day they'll be rescued. This thrilling new adventure story from bestselling author Theodore Taylor is a moving testament to the bond between brothers--and to the strength of the human spirit. Includes a map, a glossary of Inuit words and phrases, and an author's note.."Article| Theodore Taylor| Statement ..."
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♥ Book Title : The Drift of Sea Ice
☯ Full Synopsis : "The Second Edition of The Drift of Sea Ice presents the fundamental laws of sea ice drift which come from the material properties of sea ice and the basic laws of mechanics. The resulting system of equations is analysed for the general properties of sea ice drift, the free drift model and analytical models for ice drift in the presence of internal friction, and the construction of numerical ice drift models is detailed. This second edition of a much lauded work, unique on this topic in the English language, has been revised, updated and expanded with much new information and outlines recent results, in particular in relation to the climate problem, mathematical modelling and ice engineering applications. The current book presents the theory, observations, mathematical modelling techniques, and applications of sea ice drift science. The theory is presented from the beginning on a graduate student level, so that students and researchers coming from other fields such as physical oceanography, meteorology, physics, engineering, environmental sciences or geography can use the book as a source book or self-study material. First the drift ice material is presented ending with the concept of ‘ice state’ – the relevant properties in sea ice dynamics. Ice kinematics observations are widely presented with the mathematical analysis methods, and thereafter come drift ice rheology – to close the triangle material – kinematics – stress. The momentum equation of sea ice is derived in detail and its general properties are carefully analysed. Then follow two chapters on analytical models: free drift and drift in the presence of internal friction: These are very important tools in understanding the dynamical behaviour of sea ice. The last topical chapter is numerical models, which are the modern tool to solve ice dynamics problem in short term and long term problems. The closing chapter summarises sea ice dynamics applications and the need of sea ice dynamic knowledge and gives some final remarks on the future of this branch of science."Article| Matti Leppäranta| Statement ..."
♥ Book Title : Ice Drift, Ocean Circulation and Climate Change
☯ Full Synopsis : "The issue of global warming and climate change is of continuous concern. Since the 1970s, it bas been shown that the pack-ice around the Arctic Ocean is thinning, the margin of permafrost is moving north and the vegetation in the high northern parts of the world is changing (the 'greening' of the Arctic). But are these changes the result of human activity or simply regular variations of the Earth's climate system? Over thousands of years, a continuous archive of iceberg and sea ice drift bas formed in the deep-sea sediments, revealing the place of the ice's origin and allowing a reconstruction of the surface currents and the climate of the past. However, the drift of floating ice from one place to another is not just a passive record of past ocean circulation. It actively influences and changes the surface ocean circulation, thus having a profound effect on climate change. Ice Drift, Ocean Circulation and Climate Change is the first book to focus on the interactions between ice, the ocean and the atmosphere and to describe how these three components of the climate system influence each other. It makes clear the positive contribution of paleoclimatology and paleoceanography and should be read by anyone concerned with global warming and climate change."Article| Jens Bischof| Statement ..."
♥ Book Title : A Comparison of Ice Drift Motion from Modeled and Buoy Data
☯ Full Synopsis : "U.S. Naval operations in the Arctic require an effective way to predict the movement and behavior of sea ice. This is currently provided by the Navy's PIPS model which is based on Hibler's (1979) sea ice model which combines the thermodynamic ice heat budget with a dynamic ice model sensitive to the effects of ice thickness and ice strength. The PIPS model simultaneously solves a system of four equations of ice momentum balance, ice rheology, ice thickness, and ice strength. In order to test the performance of Hibler's formulation, another version of it, developed by Lemke et al., (1990), was adapted to the Arctic Ocean. The model was initialized and run using 1986 forcing data and its performance evaluated using Arctic buoy drift data. Results indicate that the model ice drift is principally driven by wind forcing, that its response to changes in weather is rapid and essentially correct, and that it performs better at high wind speeds than at low wind speeds. Limitations to its accuracy were chiefly the result of limits to the precision and resolution of the input data provided to run the model, especially near the ice margins. Overall, the model performs well in depicting the ice flow pattern in all conditions in the Arctic."Article| | Statement ..."
☯ Full Synopsis : ""Article| | Statement ..."
♥ Book Title : Drift, Deformation, and Fracture of Sea Ice
☯ Full Synopsis : "Sea ice is a major component of polar environments, especially in the Arctic where it covers the entire Arctic Ocean throughout most of the year. However, in the context of climate change, the Arctic sea ice cover has been declining significantly over the last decades, either in terms of its concentration or thickness. The sea ice cover evolution and climate change are strongly coupled through the albedo positive feedback, thus possibly explaining the Arctic amplification of climate warming. In addition to thermodynamics, sea ice kinematics (drift, deformation) appears as an essential factor in the evolution of the ice cover through a reduction of the average ice age (and consequently of the cover's thickness), or ice export out of the Arctic. This is a first motivation for a better understanding of the kinematical and mechanical processes of sea ice. A more upstream, theoretical motivation is a better understanding of the brittle deformation of geophysical objects across a wide range of scales. Indeed, owing to its very strong kinematics, compared e.g. to the Earth’s crust, an unrivaled kinematical data set is available for sea ice from in situ (e.g. drifting buoys) or satellite observations. Here, we review the recent advances in the understanding of sea ice drift, deformation and fracturing obtained from these data. We focus particularly on the scaling properties in time and scale that characterize these processes, and we emphasize the analogies that can be drawn from the deformation of the Earth’s crust. These scaling properties, which are the signature of long-range elastic interactions within the cover, constrain future developments in the modeling of sea ice mechanics. We also show that kinematical and rheological variables such as average velocity, average strain-rate or strength have significantly changed over the last decades, accompanying and actually accelerating the Arctic sea ice decline."Article| Jerome Weiss| Statement ..."
♥ Book Title : Remote Sensing of Sea Ice in the Northern Sea Route
☯ Full Synopsis : "Remote Sensing of Sea Ice in the Northern Sea Route: Studies and Applications initially provides a history of the Northern Sea Route as an important strategic transport route for supporting the northern regions of Russia and cargo transportation between Europe and the Northern Pacific Basin. The authors then describe sea ice conditions in the Eurasian Arctic Seas and, using microwave satellite data, provide a detailed analysis of difficult sea ice conditions. Remote sensing techniques and the basic principles of SAR image formation are described, as well as the major satellite radar systems used for ice studies in the Arctic. The authors take a good look at the use of sensing equipment in experiments, including the ICE WATCH project used for monitoring the Northern Sea Route. The possibilities of using SAR remote sensing for ice navigation in the Northern Sea Route is also detailed, analysing techniques of automatic image processing and interpretation. A study is provided of regional drifting ice, fast ice and river ice in the coastal areas of the Arctic Seas. The book concludes with a review of the practical experience using SAR images for supporting navigation and offshore industrial activity, based on a series of experiments conducted with the Murmansk Shipping Company on board nuclear icebreakers."Article| Ola M. Johannessen, Vitali Alexandrov, Ivan Ye. Frolov, Stein Sandven, Lasse H. Pettersson, Leonid P. Bobylev, Kjell Kloster, Vladimir G. Smirnov, Yevgeny U. Mironov, Nikolay G. Babich| Statement ..."
♥ Book Title : Cruise Report from the Ice Drift Study in the Gulf of St. Lawrence 1970
☯ Full Synopsis : ""Article| | Statement ..."
♥ Book Title : The Arctic Seas
☯ Full Synopsis : "The Arctic region has long held a fascination for explorers and scientists of many countries. Despite the numerous voyages of exploration, the na ture of the central Arctic was unknown only 90 years ago; it was believed to be a shallow sea dotted with islands. During Nansen's historic voyage on the polarship Fram, which commenced in 1893, the great depth of the central basin was discovered. In the Soviet Union, investigation of the Arctic Ocean became national policy after 1917. Today research at several scientific institutions there is devoted primarily to the study of the North Polar Ocean and seas. The systematic exploration of the Arctic by the United States com menced in 1951. Research has been conducted year-round from drifting ice islands, which are tabular fragments of glacier ice that break away from ice shelves. Most frequently, ice islands originate off the northern coast of Ellesmere Island. These research platforms are occupied as weather sta tions, as well as for oceanographic and geophysical studies. Several inter national projects, conducted by Canadian, European, and U. S. groups, have been underway during the last three decades. Although much new data have accumulated since the publication of the Marine Geology and Oceanography of the Arctic Seas volume in 1974 (Yvonne Herman, ed. ), in various fields of polar research-including present-day ice cover, hydrogra phy, fauna, flora, and geology-many questions remain to be answered."Article| Yvonne Herman| Statement ..."
♥ Book Title : Water Circulation and Ice Drift of the Southern Ocean (Tsirkulyatsiya Vod i Dreif Ldov Yuzhnogo Okeana).
☯ Full Synopsis : "Data gathered by the Soviet OB' and LENA Expeditions during the IGY, in conjunction with data gathered by American, British and other expeditions, are used in the plotting of Atlas Antarktiki. According to it, the current pattern in the Southern Ocean is cyclonic, with centers roughly coinciding with those of the quasistationary climatic cyclones. The so-called Antarctic Convergence is formed in places where the cold Antarctic water meets the warm subantarctic water. Here the cold Antarctic water sinks. Farther to the north, between 35 and 40 degrees S, a subtropical convergence is formed. In addition, there is one divergence zone where the upwelling of bottom water takes place. The cyclonic water movement in the coastal zone of Antarctica creates a zonal distribution of hydrological characteristics: the northern branches bring the cold Antarctic water northward, whereas the southern branches bring the warmer water to the Antarctic coast. (Author)."Article| Alekseĭ Fedorovich Treshnikov, NAVAL OCEANOGRAPHIC OFFICE WASHINGTON D C.| Statement ..."
♥ Book Title : The Arctic Basin
☯ Full Synopsis : ""Article| Ivan E. Frolov, Zalman M. Gudkovich, Vladimir F. Radionov, Alexander V. Shirochkov, Leonid A. Timokhov| Statement ..."
♥ Book Title : The Nordic Seas
☯ Full Synopsis : "" ... as soon as one has traversed the greater part of the wild sea, one comes upon such a huge quantity of ice that nowhere in the whole world has the like been known." "This ice is of a wonderful nature. It lies at times quite still, as one would expect, with openings or large fjords in it; but sometimes its movement is so strong and rapid as to equal that of a ship running before the wind, and it drifts against the wind as often as with it." Kongespeilet - 1250 A.D. ("The Mirror of Kings") Modern societies require increasing amounts influence on the water mass and on the resulting of scientific information about the environment total environment of the region; therefore, cer tain of its characteristics will necessarily be in whieh they live and work. For the seas this information must describe the air above the sea, included."Article| Burton G. Hurdle| Statement ..."
♥ Book Title : Interannual and Decadal Variability of Sea Ice Drift, Concentration and Thickness in the Weddell Sea
☯ Full Synopsis : ""Article| Sandra Schwegmann| Statement ..."